What is Mitragynine?
Mitragynine is one of the most abundant active alkaloids found in the Southeast Asian Kratom plant. The compound was first isolated in 1921 but the first total synthesis of mitragynine from the Kratom plant occurred in 1995. Before it became more popular in western civilization, it was used as a folk medicine to cure diarrhea and numb pain. It was also used to help mitigate the withdrawal symptoms caused by opioids. Mitragynine can act both as a stimulant or a sedative depending on how much the user ingests. Leaves of the Kratom plant were most commonly ingested after being brewed into a tea, however it can also be eaten plain or dried and smoked.
Chemical Properties of Mitragynine
The chemical structure of Mitragynine was elucidated in 1964. Its molecular formula is C23H30N2O4 and it weighs 398.50 g/mol. Mitragynine is a 9-methoxy-corynantheidine. Its chemical structure is most similar to yohimbe alkaloids but it also has a structural connection to voacangine, though it is distant.
The compound is insoluble in water, however is can be soluble in conventional organic solvents such as acetic acid, chloroform, diethyl ether, acetone and any form of alcohol. When heated, Mitragynine forms white, amorphous crystals which melt slightly over 100°C and it distills at 235°C.
The side effects of ingesting a substance with Mitragynine can vary from person to person and on how much was taken. Most of the time the first effects are felt minutes after partaking. Low doses, less than 5 grams, can act like a stimulant and last about one or two hours. Other effects include:
Larger doses, larger than 5 grams, act more like a suppressant. These effects can last several hours and include:
– Decreased alertness
– Decreased energy
– Muscle relaxation
– Cough suppression
In addition to these side effects of Mitragynine, which are considered part of the “high”, there are a few more that occur during both small and large doses. These additional side effects include:
– Pupillary constriction
– Nausea and vomiting
– Skin redness
The size of the dosage depends on what type of “high” the user is looking to achieve. There are smaller amounts, which are considered to be anything less than 5 grams, and larger amounts, which are considered to be anything more than 5 grams, are the two groups of Mitragynine usage. As previously mentioned, these two amounts come with their own side effects, benefits and detriments.
Mitragynine currently has three main ways to introduce it into the human body: eating, brewing it into a tea and smoking. Where it originated the preferred ingestion was in a tea where other additives could be included to mellow out the bitter flavor the Kratom leaves had. As Mitragynine became more popular smoking became more common. Smoking also allowed the effects to occur at a faster rate.
Ingesting Mitragynine through Kratom leaves has been a traditional practice for centuries. Even though it has been used for so long there are still studies and tests being preformed to see if Mitragynine is dangerous to the human body. While small amounts have beneficial uses, its evolution into a becoming a recreational drug has had people increasing their intake.
Long Lasting Effects and Toxicity
Those who frequently partake in or abuse the Mitragynine in Kartom leaves have a high chance of dealing with the unusual long-term effects of the compound. These effects include:
– Rapid weight loss
The development of a dependence and addiction to Mitragynine is just as common as other compounds used as drugs. Over 50% of those who use it regularly can become dependent in just six months. Those who are taking it because of its ability to help mitigate the withdrawal symptoms caused by opioids are more likely to become addicted. Like most drugs, the more that a person uses it the less effect it has. They require progressively larger doses to experience the same effects. Unless a user is careful they can develop a compulsive drug taking behavior.
For those who have become regular uses, suddenly stopping can cause them to go into withdrawal. The withdrawal effects of Mitragynine are mostly physical, except for caving the compound and rarely insomnia. They include:
– High blood pressure
– Joint and muscle pain
– Runny nose
The toxicity of Mitragynine and Kartom leaves have been on the rise ever since it has become more popular in the west. These reports were rare in Southeast Asia where it is more used as a home-remedy than a way to achieve a “high”, however overdosing was still an occurrence, even if it was rare. Studies have noticed that a large portion of the toxicity and any fatalities found with Mitragynine in the west was caused by the addition of other substances. It is difficult for experts to figure out if it was the Mitragynine or something else that caused harm to the body.
Even though Mitragynine has been ingested in small doses by the peoples of Southeast Asia in the form of Kartom leaves for centuries as a way to relieve pain, its medical and recreational uses have not been studied enough to give a concise answer to whether it is dangerous to consume. It seems that in small doses Mitragynine is a decent pain killer. Not to mention, in the form of Kartom it is completely natural. Currently, there is little stopping those who wish to buy online kratom. For those looking to partake all they have to do is buy onine kratom. It is recommended that prospective users should read extensive reviews on what they plan to buy so that they can find the best vendors.